Simple Arithmetic

The answer is:

M u l t i p l i c a t i o n

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Multiplication (n.) — The act or process of multiplying, or of increasing in number; the state of being multiplied; as, the multiplication of the human species by natural generation.

Multiplication (n.) — The process of repeating, or adding to itself, any given number or quantity a certain number of times; commonly, the process of ascertaining by a briefer computation the result of such repeated additions; also, the rule by which the operation is performed; -- the reverse of division.

Multiplication (n.) — An increase above the normal number of parts, especially of petals; augmentation.

Multiplication (n.) — The art of increasing gold or silver by magic, -- attributed formerly to the alchemists.